Posted in | News | Water | Recycling

99.9% Purity of Battery-Grade Lithium Hydroxide from Wastewater

Saltworks is pleased to announce the successful production of battery-grade lithium hydroxide from industrial wastewater. Wastewaters from some industries contain lithium in meaningful concentrations. However, economically extracting battery-grade lithium has previously been challenging.

High-Quality Lithium Solids from Industrial Wastewater

“Battery-grade lithium solids are projected to be in short supply as the world’s energy economy turns to lithium ion batteries for transport, grid storage, and more. Today’s announcement is an important milestone—our process opens the door to industrial wastewater becoming a viable source of battery-grade lithium,” said Joshua Zoshi, Saltworks’ COO.

Saltworks’ process harvests lithium hydroxide solids that reach or exceed battery-grade specifications, as confirmed by chemical analysis performed by a third party accredited laboratory. Concentrations of impurities and contaminants were all below industry standard levels, as indicated in a summary table. A detailed composition report of the solids and processing costs may be shared upon request.

Saltworks’ solutions treat a wide variety of industrial wastewaters. The company is applying its next generation technologies to harvesting ions of value from these waters. Last year, Saltworks helped a client recover cobalt, in short supply globally and considered by some to be a conflict mineral.

Wastewater Lithium Extraction Advantages

Attaching lithium production to existing industrial operations has several compelling benefits, including:

  1. Lithium-containing water is already available, so there is no need for new permits, drilling, or water conveyance.
  2. Many operators have re-use or disposal options available for spent lithium brine, so there is no need for new evaporation ponds or disposal wells because no additional wastewater is generated.
  3. Lastly, industrial operators have established financial, engineering, and project delivery capabilities, making wastewater extraction easier to roll out at scale.

In general, harvesting lithium from wastewater involves two steps:

  1. Direct Lithium Extraction (DLE): lithium is absorbed and desorbed onto a material using chemical processes, ultimately producing a lithium chloride solution of low quality, but with ten times higher lithium concentration than the original wastewater. A wide variety of DLE technologies exist or are being developed. Saltworks is technology agnostic concerning DLE processes and works with clients to select the best one for their project.
  2. Lithium Upgrading and Refining: the low quality lithium chloride solution is processed into high quality battery grade lithium carbonate or lithium hydroxide. This is where Saltworks’ core technologies come into play and offer significant advantages to clients.

Image Credit: Saltworks Technologies

Outlook for Wastewater Lithium Extraction

Given these results and the increased promise of lithium harvesting, Saltworks is now undertaking further study of wastewater lithium harvest and economics in wastewaters with lithium in excess of 70 mg/L, sustained flow rates greater than 1000 m3/day, and where existing infrastructure can be leveraged. 



Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report:

  • APA

    Saltworks Technologies. (2021, September 28). 99.9% Purity of Battery-Grade Lithium Hydroxide from Wastewater. AZoCleantech. Retrieved on March 04, 2024 from

  • MLA

    Saltworks Technologies. "99.9% Purity of Battery-Grade Lithium Hydroxide from Wastewater". AZoCleantech. 04 March 2024. <>.

  • Chicago

    Saltworks Technologies. "99.9% Purity of Battery-Grade Lithium Hydroxide from Wastewater". AZoCleantech. (accessed March 04, 2024).

  • Harvard

    Saltworks Technologies. 2021. 99.9% Purity of Battery-Grade Lithium Hydroxide from Wastewater. AZoCleantech, viewed 04 March 2024,

Tell Us What You Think

Do you have a review, update or anything you would like to add to this news story?

Leave your feedback
Your comment type
Azthena logo powered by Azthena AI

Your AI Assistant finding answers from trusted AZoM content

Your AI Powered Scientific Assistant

Hi, I'm Azthena, you can trust me to find commercial scientific answers from

A few things you need to know before we start. Please read and accept to continue.

  • Use of “Azthena” is subject to the terms and conditions of use as set out by OpenAI.
  • Content provided on any AZoNetwork sites are subject to the site Terms & Conditions and Privacy Policy.
  • Large Language Models can make mistakes. Consider checking important information.

Great. Ask your question.

While we only use edited and approved content for Azthena answers, it may on occasions provide incorrect responses. Please confirm any data provided with the related suppliers or authors. We do not provide medical advice, if you search for medical information you must always consult a medical professional before acting on any information provided.

Your questions, but not your email details will be shared with OpenAI and retained for 30 days in accordance with their privacy principles.

Please do not ask questions that use sensitive or confidential information.

Read the full Terms & Conditions.