SAR11, the most abundant plankton in the world’s oceans, are pumping out massive amounts of two sulfur gases that play important roles in the Earth’s atmosphere, researchers announced today in the journal Nature Microbiology.
The ocean releases a range of gases into the atmosphere. (Photo by Brocken Inaglory, courtesy Oregon State University)
"Everyone knows these gases by their smells", said Steve Giovannoni, a distinguished professor of microbiology in the College of Science at Oregon State University, and corresponding author of the study.
“One of these compounds – dimethylsulfide, or DMS - we recognize as the smell of the sea. The other gas - methanethiol - makes us think of leaking gas lines. In the atmosphere, dimethylsulfide oxidizes to sulfuric acid, which some scientists think can seed cloud formation and alter heating of the Earth.”
What is most interesting, the scientists said, is that the newly discovered metabolic circuit is hardwired into cells. Normally, cells turn genes on and off, as they are needed, but the newly discovered circuits for sulfur gas production by SAR11 are on all the time.
"That doesn't mean the cells are always producing the gases," said Giovannoni. “But they are always ready if algae in the surrounding water make DMSP, a compound that the SAR11 cells harvest for energy, releasing sulfur gases as waste products.”
Many types of gaseous fumes emerge from the ocean, such as formaldehyde, acetone and methanol, Giovannoni said. However, researchers were very surprised that the cells produced both DMS and methanethiol. The DMS is made by a newly discovered gene, according to the study, and it was completely unexpected. And while the author's knew the cells could make methanethiol internally, they did not expect it to be released in large quantities.
This work is part of the North Atlantic Aerosols and Marine Ecosystem Study, funded by NASA, and other agencies. Collaborators were from OSU, the University of East Anglia in the United Kingdom, Louisiana State University, the Plymouth Marine Laboratory in the United Kingdom, the Qingdao Aquarium in China, and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.