Editorial Feature

The Different Methods of Monitoring Water Quality

Water quality monitoring (WQM) is crucial for water pollution surveillance and may help guide water resource management for clean water supply. WQM systems include online automated data capture monitoring equipment, transmission networks, and data analysis software.

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The system design and platform must take into account the needs of water quality monitoring in terms of dependability, security, and price. The network topology is also an essential issue to examine carefully since it has a direct impact on the network's latency, resilience, capacity, and data routing intricacy.

The Use of Water Quality Monitoring in the Field

The proper assessment and estimate of water quality levels have become necessary since river and lake water quality is critical to human and economic growth. The cornerstone of environmental protection work is water quality evaluation, which is an essential aspect of water environmental monitoring and management.

It refers to the assessment of water quality using chemical, physical, and biological parameters based on data from WQM, in accordance with particular evaluation criteria and procedures.

Both qualitative and quantitative assessments of water quality factors are required to effectively reflect the current state of water quality, with the objective of understanding the degree of impact and advancement trends of water pollution in design to safeguard the water environment and provide a scientific foundation for water resource planning management.

The choice of an evaluation technique lies at the heart of water quality assessment. The reliability of the water quality assessment result is determined by the logic of the evaluation procedure.

Several Different Methods of Water Monitoring

CDOM/FDOM Monitoring

Dissolved organic matter (CDOM), which is colored or chromophoric, naturally occurs in watercourses. This organic material absorbs UV light and decomposes, releasing tannin, an organic pollutant that causes murky water. Furthermore, tannin leads to the reduction of water pH (acidity) and oxygen depletion.

Chlorophyll Fluorescence Analysis

The ration of wet-chemical chlorophyll, as well as active chlorophyll inside the water sample, is measured with algae toximeters. This is a practical way to identify excessive algal development and monitor water quality.

Conductivity, Salinity, and TDS Monitoring

The conductivity of a river or lake is a good measure of its quality. The total dissolved solids (TDS) content and salinity of water are affected by conductivity, which then in turn will affect the oxygen levels in the water.

pH and KH Monitoring

Tests using waters test kits, which are color-coded and give a broad range of pH measurements, may be used to determine pH. These kits are best for determining the pH range in which the water falls.

Automated pH sensors, on the other hand, provide measured data up to two decimal points for precise pH measurements. Another aspect to be aware of is KH, or carbonate hardness (a measure of carbonate and bicarbonate levels), which has a big influence on the water’s pH.

Water Quality Monitoring Purposes

Water quality monitoring can be done for a variety of reasons. Characterizing waters and identifying trends and changes in water quality over time. It can detect particular present or potential water quality issues and collect data to develop pollution prevention or treatment plans. It may assess if program objectives, such as adherence to pollution legislation and the execution of effective pollution prevention are being accomplished. Water monitoring allows for early detection of situations such as spills and floods.

Why Water Monitoring Quality is Important

Monitoring offers the objective data needed to make informed choices about water quality management now and in the coming future. Water-quality monitoring is used to detect present, continuing, and developing issues, as well as to evaluate compliance with drinking water regulations and safeguard other water-related activities.

Assessments based on monitoring data assist legislators and water managers in determining the efficacy of water regulations, determining if water quality is improving or deteriorating, and developing new policies to better protect human and environmental health. It is critical as climatic patterns are shifting and will continue to alter, and rising water temperatures will induce eutrophication and excess algae growth, lowering drinking water quality.

New Development of Water Quality Monitoring With Real-Time Data and IoT

A new method for measuring the properties of water, such as pH, turbidity, dissolved solvent, and temperature by comparing the acquired parameters to the respective ideal ranges, the real-time water contamination level. The designed system includes appropriate sensors for measuring water parameters. The technology floats on a body of water while communicating the measured data over Wi-Fi to a remote location to get instant and real-time data.

The use of electronics and the Internet of Things (IoT) has a very good influence on refreshing the approach to lesions by integrating the aspects of sustainability and IR4.0. The goal of the project is to create a wireless water quality monitoring system that can help with continuous water quality measures based on pH and turbidity data. Both the pH and turbidity readings were correctly detected by the devised method.

Future of Water Quality Monitoring

Advanced water quality monitoring methods and technological innovations, such as remote sensing, satellite imagery Earth Observation, and smart sensors, will aid in the production of reliable, continuous, and comprehensive data on the quality of water resources over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. Furthermore, using a variety of community science techniques, any individual may participate in water quality monitoring.

References and Further Reading

Kumar, K., et al. (2019) Design and Development of Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring System. 2019 Global Conference for Advancement in Technology (GCAT). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/337049996_Design_and_Development_of_Real-Time_Water_Quality_Monitoring_System

Liu, D., and Liu, S. (2019) Water Quality Monitoring and Management: Basis, Technology and Case Studies. Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/C2016-0-00573-9

G, Ann. (2020) 7 Ways to Measure, Monitor, and Evaluate Water Quality. [Online] Public Lab. Available at: https://publiclab.org/notes/anngneal/12-08-2017/7-ways-to-measure-monitor-and-evaluate-water-quality

Yasin, S., et al. (2020) The development of water quality monitoring system using internet of things. Journal of Educational and Learning Studies. https://doi.org/10.32698/0852  

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Akhlaqul Karomah

Written by

Akhlaqul Karomah

Akhlaqul has a passion for engineering, renewable energy, science, and business development.

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