New Technique Recycles Waste Silicon into Functioning Battery Components

A group of scientists from Rice University and the Université catholique de Louvain has devised a technique to fabricate flexible components from waste silicon for use in rechargeable lithium-ion (LI) batteries.

The silicon/copper/polymer composite can be rolled from its silicon substrate and leave a mask in place to begin anew the process of making another anode for a lithium-ion battery. (credit: Alexandru Vlad/Rice University).

Pulickel Ajayan, Rice University’s M. and Mary Greenwood Anderson Professor in Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science and of Chemistry, has used high-value but hard-to-recycle silicon to fabricate forests of nanowires.

Silicon absorbs 10 folds more lithium when compared to carbon generally utilized in LI batteries. However, the material breaks down rapidly as it gets expanded and contracted when it gets charged and discharged.

In the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science journal, Pulickel Ajayan and his colleagues have described a method to fabricate an anode from carefully arranged nanowires enclosed in an electrically conducting copper and an ion-conducting polymer electrolyte. The material provides nanowires the required space to expand and contract, thus increasing their efficacy. The electrolyte acts as a spacer between the cathode and the anode.

According to Ajayan, Converting waste into batteries must be a scalable technique. The scientists believe that their devices are a significant progress to develop next-generation flexible, efficient, low-cost batteries that is capable of conforming to any shape.

Co-lead authors, Arava Leela Mohana Reddy and Alexandru Vlad, created multiple anode/electrolyte composite layers from a single waste silicon wafer. They utilized colloidal nanosphere lithography to create a silicon corrosion mask by applying polystyrene beads dispersed in liquid over a discarded silicon wafer. The beads over the wafer assembled themselves into a hexagonal grid and remained set when contracted chemically.

The researchers then sprayed a thin gold layer and removed the polystyrene, leaving a fine gold mask comprising uniformly spaced holes over the wafer. They then placed the mask in a metal-assisted chemical etching, wherein the silicon dissolved where it contacted the metal, resulting in the formation of millions of uniformly spaced nanowires. They then applied a thin copper layer over the nanowires in order to enhance the lithium absorption capability of the wires and then infused the wires with an electrolyte.

The researchers then constructed a battery by integrating with a current collector and cathode on one side and a spray-on current collector on the other side. The battery demonstrated 150 mAh/g but decayed slightly over 50 charge/discharge cycles. The scientists are now involved in improving those qualities and assessing the anodes in regular battery configurations.

Source: http://www.rice.edu

G.P. Thomas

Written by

G.P. Thomas

Gary graduated from the University of Manchester with a first-class honours degree in Geochemistry and a Masters in Earth Sciences. After working in the Australian mining industry, Gary decided to hang up his geology boots and turn his hand to writing. When he isn't developing topical and informative content, Gary can usually be found playing his beloved guitar, or watching Aston Villa FC snatch defeat from the jaws of victory.

Citations

Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report:

  • APA

    Thomas, G.P.. (2019, March 01). New Technique Recycles Waste Silicon into Functioning Battery Components. AZoCleantech. Retrieved on December 14, 2019 from https://www.azocleantech.com/news.aspx?newsID=17269.

  • MLA

    Thomas, G.P.. "New Technique Recycles Waste Silicon into Functioning Battery Components". AZoCleantech. 14 December 2019. <https://www.azocleantech.com/news.aspx?newsID=17269>.

  • Chicago

    Thomas, G.P.. "New Technique Recycles Waste Silicon into Functioning Battery Components". AZoCleantech. https://www.azocleantech.com/news.aspx?newsID=17269. (accessed December 14, 2019).

  • Harvard

    Thomas, G.P.. 2019. New Technique Recycles Waste Silicon into Functioning Battery Components. AZoCleantech, viewed 14 December 2019, https://www.azocleantech.com/news.aspx?newsID=17269.

Tell Us What You Think

Do you have a review, update or anything you would like to add to this news story?

Leave your feedback
Submit